Commissar of foreign Affairs of the USSR M. M. Litvinov on the Plenum of the League Nations'.

 On September 19, Benes, through the Soviet Plenipotentiary in Prague, addressed the Soviet government regarding its position in the event of a military conflict. The Soviet government replied that it was ready to fulfill the terms of the Prague Treaty. The Soviet Union offered its assistance to Czechoslovakia in the event of a war with Germany, even if, contrary to the Pact, France did not do so, and Poland and Romania refused to allow Soviet troops to pass. Poland's position was expressed in statements that in the event of a German attack on Czechoslovakia, it would not interfere and would not allow Soviet troops to pass through its territory, and would immediately declare war on the Soviet Union if it tried to send troops through Polish territory to help Czechoslovakia. And if Soviet planes appear over Poland on their way to Czechoslovakia, they will immediately be attacked by Polish aircraft. France and Czechoslovakia refused military negotiations, and Britain and France blocked Soviet proposals to discuss the issue of collective support for Czechoslovakia in the League of Nations...


It people's Commissar of foreign Affairs of the USSR M. M. Litvinov on the Plenum of the League Nations'.

21 September 1938

We debating currently annual time League report of the United Nations. Need to recognize, however, quite natural and correct, what are the speakers at the Plenum speakers say not about the fact that The League did, and about what she didn't in the past year and in previous years years. Apparently, everyone is aware, what is the League of Nations it was not created for that activity, which it tells you about report of the General Director Secretary of the League. We must not forget,

what the League of Nations was reaction to world war with her inexplicable the horrors that it was intended to do this the war last, to protect all Nations from aggression and replace the system of military unions collective organization victims aggression. Between topics in this area The League is nothing not done. two States – Abyssinia and Austria – we lost theirs self-service existence due to gross violence above them; the third – China-the second once a week seven years old now victim of aggression and a foreign one invasions; fourth – Spain-already third year he's bleeding out as a result armed interventions in its internal documents cases of two aggressors. The League of Nations does not fulfilled its obligations obligations in relation to mentioned States.

In present time the fifth state – Czechoslovakia "testing it intervention to the internal ones external Affairs next door States and is located under threat loudly proclaimed aggression. One of the oldest, cultural, hard-working European peoples, who found after centuries oppression his state independence, not today tomorrow maybe to be internally with weapons in hands to defend this autonomy. I am convinced that likes if and not all governments, that of all Nations, submitted by at the Plenum, they reach out to Czechoslovakian people in Grozny the hour of his trials, what we all remember the most active one the role that Czechoslovakia played and her current one Mr. President Benes in the organization and the development League Nations that all our thoughts so absorbed events what is happening in Czechoslovakia and around her, we, the delegates, can hardly to pay attention to the agenda of the Plenum, in which Czechoslovak the question is no. I don't have to so be surprised, what? discussion it boils down to the fact that the League the United Nations should was to do what didn't she do I did. [...]

In The League of Nations and outside of it, there are plans two trends, two concepts saves the world. There the view that when a the state proclaims foreign policy based on aggression, on offense other people's borders, on violent the seizure of foreign possessions, on enslavement other Nations, on domination over the whole the continent The League of Nations not only has right, but is obliged to state clearly and loud, designed guard universal the world, it will not allow implementation this program and will fight with it all means, which it features. Within the framework of such a applications individual members Leagues can and do they must form special dimensions for sharing information protection of individual users hotbeds of the threatened the world front. It is assumed that what States, open speakers against the principles, allowed the basis of the Covenant The League of Nations and the briana Pact – Kellogg's, the praisers aggression and mocking people over international ones obligations, not available no admonitions whatsoever and persuasion, except only force argument, and what shouldn't be places in any way trade-offs and transactions with them. Hold it they are from casting in execution their evil designs you can only demonstration of the force on which which they are at the same time, they will bump into each other. Of course of course, what if the slightest using the actual one making payments aggression should be avoided to be launched in the course of the appropriate gradualness, taking into account the features each member The League is scheduled in article 16 of the collective action. Otherwise speaking against the aggressor it should be conducted program, planned The League's Charter Nations, but resolutely, consistently and without any fluctuations, and then the aggressor himself it will not be entered into the temptation and the world will be kept peaceful by other means. There is, however, and another concept, which recommends as the highest the wisdom of menaging the aggressor, not touch it self-love, eh to carry on with it conversations and negotiations to convince him that no collective action not will be against it made any groups and blocks against it will not created (though he enters aggressive blocks with other the aggressors), to conclude with him compromise agreement and close on the these agreements to meet his requirements even if the illegal, even ride for diktats and ultimatums, bringing him the sacrifice of life the interests of or other States avoiding performances questions about it the action The League of Nations, right I don't like it to the aggressor, he offended, he sulking. Unfortunately, this one exactly policy before so far, I've been practicing in relation to aggression, and it had a consequence three wars and threatens to bring down on us the fourth. Sacrificed it's four o'clock people, next in line – fifth.

In view of so deplorable results this policy we had the right expect recognition its fallacies and necessity replacing it with another one, instead of what we heard it here are the suggestions about perpetuation this policy. If still the aggressor, given possible the reaction of the League Nations, a few insecure prepared your aggression, implementing its gradually, as needed how was he sure in the absence of sufficient reactions, then now it is offered reassure you in advance his, that him there's nothing else to do watch out Leagues that League from now on it won't be apply to not only that military, but even economic ones or financial ones so what in the worst case scenario he's in danger moral condemnation, and then, probably, invested in the appropriate field polite diplomatic service the form. [...]

I I say all this not for her in order to change your mind those governments that those state owned ones actors who made decisions, the result which were some listened to us here speech. Error and malware these solutions for everything humanity, and first of all for those States that that protect their, will show history. At the moment, when bookmarks are placed land mines for organization name, the one you were with related great ones hopes of many contemporaries, the one who applied it a specific one print to our page the era of international relationships, in the moment when not because of it random match out of the League accepted solutions that remind us international transaction pre-war time and which needs tilting existing the concept of international morality, on the international contractual obligations when arranged, obviously sacrifice God of aggression when fed line under the whole post-war international activity the only the conclusion that nothing succeeds in addition to the aggression, each state must determine its role and their responsibility before his contemporaries, to history. That's why I should be here say it out loud, what is Soviet government not in the least it's not my fault in the process of being performed events and in Tom, what's behind this maybe fatal follow. After a long fluctuations and doubt Soviet The Union has arrived to the League to attach it the power of 170-millionth people to the forces the world. At the moment the hour of bitterness frustrations he's not a bad guy. I have to talk about it regret, though if only because otherwise, undoubtedly, they would be done try it omission attribute imaginary powerlessness and the collapse of the League. Before until now, it has been always loyal accepted on myself. and performed it loyally and expressed it ready perform all tasks solutions and even recommendations Leagues that had the goal is to save peace and struggle with aggressors, without regard with the fact that they coincided do these solutions apply with its state owned facilities interests today. This is it there was his behavior when attacked to Abyssinia. Soviet delegation invariably she insisted on execution League of its own debt to Spain, and not her fault that Spanish there was a problem removed from the League United Nations and transmitted in the so-called London Committee for non-interference, which one, like we're all here now we know, he sees your task in order not to interfere with the intervention aggressive ones countries to Spanish business. Anyway in this case, actions Soviet Union governments in relation to Spanish events in London the Committee and outside it is imbued with the spirit of the principles The League of Nations and installed norms of international law rights. Same thing the most possible say and in attitude Chinese problems. Soviet delegation she always insisted on rendering services By the League of Nations maximum value support services victims of Japanese aggression aggression, and those modest recommendations, which leagues the United Nations adopted, Soviet government performs more than than loyally.

This event like vanishing the Austrian one States, passed unnoticed for the League of Nations. Aware of the significance, which one is this the event must have for the fates all over Europe, and first of all for Czechoslovakia, Soviet government right after Anschluss turned officially to the other great ones European powers with offer about immediate delivery collectively discussion possible ones consequences this event with the purpose of making a decision collective warning messages measures. Unfortunately, this is a suggestion, implementation which could have been deliver us from worries, tested now with all the world about the fate of Czechoslovakia, not rated on its own merits. Related to Czechoslovakia the mutual benefit Pact help, Soviet The Union in the future abstained from everyone interventions in negotiations Czechoslovakian governments with Sudeten Germans, considering this internal the Czechoslovakian case governments. We refrained any tips Czechoslovak the government counting invalid require the concessions the Germans to the detriment of state interests, for the sake of deliverance we need run our commitments under the Covenant. Don't we gave advice also in reverse in this direction. We are very appreciated the beat of the Czechoslovak governments, which is up to the most recent ones days of us even did not request it, can we do it we have our obligations according to the Pact, because it's obviously a bad name. there was no doubt about it and there was no reason to doubt.

When a few days before my departure to Geneva French the government the first time asked to request that we about our position in case of an attack on Czechoslovakia, I gave on behalf of the his government absolutely clear and unambiguous response, namely: we intend to perform its obligations under the Covenant together France to provide Czechoslovakia available us ways. Our military Department ready immediately take part in the meeting with representatives French and Czechoslovak military departments for discussion events, dictated the moment. Independently from this we they would have considered it, however, desirable statement questions in the League Nations yet at least about article 11 for the purpose of, first of all, mobilizations public transport opinions and, secondly, clarifications positions of some companies other States, feasible whose help it would be very interesting valuable. It is necessary, however, first exhaust everything prevention measures armed conflict, and one of them measures we consider immediate meeting European countries the great powers and other interested parties States for an eventual output levels collective agreement demarche.

Here as our website said the answer. Only the third day Czechoslovakian government first request made Soviet, is it ready, in accordance with with Czechoslovak the Pact, to provide immediately and effective assistance to Czechoslovakia if France, true its obligations, will render such a service the same help, and on the it's Soviet government it's completely gone clear and positive the answer. I think, agree, what was it loyal's response participant's name international agreements and a loyal defender League of Nations. Don't our fault if not given move our offers, which are me I'm sure they could give desirable results results as in the interests Czechoslovakia, so it is for the whole of Europe and universal the world. Unfortunately, were accepted other measures, which led to, and they couldn't help it lead to such a surrender, which is early or later will have absolutely boundless catastrophic events consequences.

Avoid problematic wars today and get true and comprehensive war tomorrow, Yes even at a price satisfaction appetites insatiable aggressors and destruction and disfigurement sovereign States States, does not mean to act in the spirit of the Pact League of Nations. Award sabre rattling and the appeal to arms for permissions international problems, otherwise speaking of which, award and encourage offensive superimperialism q until now unheard of it doesn't mean anything act in the spirit of the Pact Kellogg-Briand.

Soviet the government which boasts a their innocence such a policy and which invariably followed the principles of these the two covenants, approved almost all the peoples of the world, will not continue to deviate from them, convinced that these conditions it is impossible another way to provide valid peace and valid international justice. Go back to this way it calls and others governments.

Newspaper Izvestia No. 222 (6689), September 22 1938